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Title: Urinary Excretion of Crystalloids During Fasting in the Month of Ramadan During Summer Season
Authors: Prof. Dr. Farukh A. Khan
Issue Date: 1-Jan-1985
Publisher: Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore
Series/Report no.: PP-275;P-PMI/MED(900
Abstract: Various metabolic changes produced in response to fasting may be beneficial or harmful to the integrity of the living creatures. The animals, that undergo hibernation, are capable of well withstanding starvation over long periods. There are many situations when mankind face starvation. The period from birth to the first feed is the first exposure to starvation. Overnight fasting is a feature of the usual feeding patterns all over the world. Not availability of the food as during prisons result in high mortality and mortality rates. Dysphagia due to any obstructive lesion and loss of appetite as in cancer patients may impose starvation and weight loss. In anorexia nervosa, a unique malady, starvation extends over month and years. Sometimes, fasting is recommended as a part of treatment such as in management of surgical patients and treatments of obesity. Occasionally it is recorded to as hunger strike a famous form of political protests. Futural Fasting has been advised by most of the majority religions of the world. Jainism recommends 11. 9 days last twice a year. Buddhism requires four fasts a month. Jews observe fast on Youm Kippure (the day of Atonment), and five other fasts (fats f Tarvet, Fast of Tammuz, fast of Av, Fast of Gedaliah and Fast of Esther). Fasting used to be one of the rites of lent or advent, a Christian religions season, but it is n more required in Lent. Ramadan is a sacred month for the Muslims. During the whole holy months, the adult Muslims are obliged o fast from dawn to sunset. The sick and the travelers and women who are pregnant, lactating or menstruating are allowed to postpone their fast but equal number of days are to be completed later on at a less vulnerable period. The reports regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on various physiological variables mention little about stone risk factors. As fluid intake is also prohibited during fasting hours, dehydration is expected and this may be presumed to result in passage of relatively small amount of concentrated urine particularly during hot summer season. Thus, the risk of urinary stone formation may be enhancing. However, caloric restriction decreases the water retaining capacity so that polyuria ensues. The present study was conducted to appreciate the effect of Ramadan fasting on stone risk factors.
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